A 14-Day Training Schedule Prior to a Major Competition:
Designed for 100, 200, and 400 meter Sprinters
The following is a training schedule to be used prior to the first preliminary round of a major competition (Olympic Games, World Championships, etc.) for sprinters in the 100, 200 and/or 400 meters.
*The main objective of the last fourteen days of training should be the gradual tapering or unloading of the all components of training. This tapering process, if done correctly, will allow for maximal peaking which should result in the one of the best performances of the year. There are two other factors necessary for the peaking process to take place. These are rest and metabolism (nutrition).
*Components of Training to be considered:
1.Volume of workouts
c.Number of repetition
2.Intensity of Workouts
b.Recovery between repetitions
c.Number of repetitions
d.Distance - length
3.Strength Training (Weights)
7.Number of training sessions per day
Fourteen days prior to a major competition ・other considerations
*Intensity of workouts (percentage of maximum effort)
A. Very easy: 30%-50%
F. Very Hard:90%-100%
*Volume of workouts
A. Length of workouts
B. Number of repetitions
*The type of workout and the pattern of workout used during the season should be continued. The intensity and volume should decrease.
*Emphasis should be placed on proper technique, relaxation and execution of the race.
*It takes 48 hours of rest for the body to be fully recovered.
*There should be one training session per day.
*Weight training ・only one weight training session should be done in the last two weeks of preparation. This session should be of medium intensity, low volume and few repetitions. Only one session is necessary to stimulate the nervous system.
*Plyometrics ・only one session of plyometrics should be done in the last two weeks of preparation. This session should be of medium intensity, low volume and few repetitions. Only one session is necessary to stimulate the nervous system.
*Weight training and plyometrics or other methods of strength training should be done in the early part of the 14-day tapering cycle.
*Drills should also be kept to a minimum.
*Metabolism (Nutrition), sleep and hydration should be of primary concern.
*Every training session should begin with a proper warm-p and end with the correct cool down. The intensity, volume, and length of time taken to warm-up are essential.
*The following Intensity Scale should be used to determine the intensity (as a percentage of maximum effort) of each running workout, strength training session and plyometrics:
A. Very easy: 30%-50%
F. Very Hard:90%-100%
*Day 1: Hard: 80%-90%
Day 2: Medium: 60%-70%
Day 3: Easy: 50%-60%
*Day 4: Hard: 80%-90%
Day 5: Very easy: 30%-50%
Day 6: REST
*Day 7: Hard: 80%-90%
Day 8: Very easy: 30%-50%
Day 9: Medium: 60%-70%
Day 10: Very easy: 30%-50%
Day 11: Easy: 50%-60%
Day 12: Very easy: 30%-50%
Day 13: REST
Day 14: REST
by Tom Tellez and Dave Harwood
1. The main objective in sprinting is to propel the body down the track as fast as possible (translatory motion).
2. The athlete who can best project his/her body forward and maintain top speed will be more successful.
3. It is not the athlete with the ‘quickest’ turnover or the ‘longest’ reach who wins but the one who can get his/her body to travel the fastest over the longest distance.
4. The athlete who can best utilize the hip joints will be more successful in sprinting.
5. The hip acts as a crank to deliver the force to the ground. This force is then returned to the center of mass lifting it up off of the ground.
6. The athlete who body moves away from the ground the fastest will end up in front. Given the correct angle of projection, the athlete will cover more distance.
7. A gain in distance is a gain in speed.
8. The ‘push-off’ is the most important phase in the stride. The body is stretched upward from the ground. The origin of the motion is at the hip joint.
9. The athlete should try to apply the biggest force in the longest time possible. This will result in a stronger impulse, which yields a bigger change in momentum. (The athlete would have a higher change in velocity with a bigger impulse).
10. The athlete should follow through with the arm stroke, allowing more time for the forces to work. As a result, the body will move away from the ground faster.
11. It is important that the levers go through with the full range of motion at the hip and at the shoulder.
12. The athlete should think that movement feels slow because of the time allowed pushing (driving) the hips up.
13. Recovery speed is in the stretch. This requires the athlete to move the lever through the full range of motion.
14. Foot replacement, the hip continues to extend. The foot (ankle) is place directly under the knee joint. The shin is perpendicular (right angle) to the ground.
15. Contact is first made at the (outside) ball of the foot, and then the weight is distributed to the ball of the foot. As the body passes over the foot, the heel slightly touches the ground. The ankle extends naturally as the hip joint is stretched upwards.
16. On the leg recovery, the foot is brought off the ground by stretch reflex at the hip. The knee leads the foot during the forward swing. With the heel tucked close to the glutes, the leg is allowed to swing forward. This increases the angular velocity of the leg. The hell should not kick up behind but move towards the glutes when ground contact is broken (wall running)
17. After the knee comes forward, the foot begins to drop for the next stride. The cycle repeats itself throughout the run.
18. Head is held in natural alignment with the spine.
19. Relaxation is the key for successful sprinting.
20. Keep ankle joint neutral. There is no dorsi-flexion or plantar flexion of the ankle joint.
21. The foot only acts as support.